Glomerulonephritis: How to Diagnose and Prevent It at Various Levels

Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidney. The glomeruli is constellation of small blood vessels in the kidney that act as a filter to remove excess fluid, electrolytes and nitrogenous wastes from the blood into the urine.

It is divided into:

Acute Glomerulonephritis- The symptoms develop suddenly.

Chronic Glomerulonephritis- The symptoms develop gradually.

In glomerulonephritis, the glomeruli lose their filtering capacity thus blood proteins and red cells are excreted in the urine in various quantities depending on the severity of the glomerular damage.

DIAGNOSIS OF GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
Accurate diagnosis is essential in the successful treatment of glomerulonephritis.

Diagnosis is highly dependent on the clarity of symptoms, examination and investigation findings.

SYMPTOMS
· Passage of coca-colored urine due to the presence of red blood cells in the urine. This is called haematuria.

· Passage of foamy urine due to excess amount of proteins in the urine. This is called proteinuria.

· Presence of peri-orbital and ankle swelling.

EXAMINATION FINDINGS
· Peri-orbital and pedal edema.

· Elevated blood pressure.

INVESTIGATIONS
· Urinalysis-This reveals diagnostic findings such as red blood cells, casts, white blood cells and proteins in the urine.

· Blood test- Blood level of electrolytes, urea and creatinine. This is mainly done to assess the extent of kidney damage.

· Radiological imaging tests-This is done usually when the blood tests suggest some level of kidney damage. E.g Renal scan or abdominal CT scan is done.

· Kidney biopsy- This entails using a clinical procedure to extract some pieces of kidney tissues for microscopic examination. This is the only test that confirms glomerulonephritis.

TREATMENT
This is based on the following principles:

· Treat underlying health conditions quickly.

· Use of corticosteroids to reduce the degree of inflammation and immunological responses.

· Dialysis- This is used for individuals with acute kidney injury or kidney failure.

· Anti-hypertensives such as ACEI, ARBs- This is used to control hypertension in some selected individuals.

PREVENTION STRATEGIES
There are 3 levels of prevention namely: primary, secondary and tertiary.

PRIMARY PREVENTION
The aim of this is to prevent the onset of glomerulonephritis.

It entails the following

· Throat swab should be done for suspected bacteria cause of sore throat. If streptococcus is suspected, oral penicillin should be commenced as soon as possible.

· Prompt treatment of individuals with bacteria endocarditis.

SECONDARY PREVENTION
This involves early diagnosis and prompt treatment of glomerulonephritis.

It specifically entails the following:

· Routine urinalysis to be done periodically for individuals at risk of streptococci infections and for individuals greater than 40 years.

· Periodic monitoring of blood urea and creatinine levels should be done for individuals with compromised kidney function.

TERTIARY PREVENTION
This involves activities and interventions put in place for individuals with glomerulonephritis from developing complications such as kidney failure and to reduce the disease progression.

· Optimal control of co-morbidities like hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

· Reduce intake of high protein diet.

· Restrict salt intake.

· Cessation of smoking.

· Regular clinic follow up by a Nephrologist.

Finally, glomerulonephritis is a very lethal kidney disease of which the onset and progression can be prevented if an individual adheres to the activities in the various levels of prevention highlighted above.

Analysis to Next Generation Sequencing Technology

With the development of science, traditional Sanger sequencing has failed to meet new requirements of low cost, high throughput and fast in speed.

Recent years, with the discovery and promotion of second-generation sequencing technology, the gene sequencing speed has increased greatly while achieving a substantial decline in costs, making large-scale application of genome sequencing possible. Now, the cost of personal whole genome sequencing is about 5,000$, and is expected to decreased to less than $ 1,000 in the next few years.

The rapid development of sequencing technology will promote the massive accumulation of DNA sequencing data, accompanied by the accumulation of the corresponding individual diseases, signs and other data at the same time. When we accumulate enough data, how to understand these data will be critical. On the micro level, generations of molecular biologists’ studying the effects of apparent biological traits genes exert on utilizing technologies like gene knockout have made breakthroughs in many crucial aspects. On the macro level, statistics and other data analysis techniques are introduced to study the relationship between gene sequences and biological phenotype. The accumulation of basic scientific research gradually brings breakthroughs in clinical applications.

There are now two types of clinical applications mainly, one aims at disease screening of ordinary people. It infers people’s future risks of getting cancer by measuring the known genes associated with a disease loci. The other aims at the diagnosis cancer and other deadly diseases. It finds in a series of drugs or plans the most effective one for certain patients by testing the loci of certain genes.

Data from BBC research shows that total global gene sequencing market increased from $ 7.941million in 2007 to $ 4.5 billion in 2013, and will reach $ 11.7 billion in the year of 2018 with the CAGR up to 21.2%.

Currently, the market of de novo sequence platform is mainly taken by several major manufacturers, including the Illumina, Ion Torrent / Life Technologies (was the acquisition of Thermo Fisher in 2014), 454 Life Sciences / Roche, etc.

Under such a circumstance, the next generation sequencing technology (second-generation sequencing) appears. As an emerging industry, the next-generation sequencing technology can be applied in clinical testing like antibody discovery, health industry, industrial and agricultural use of gene-oriented study as well as scientific research and development.

To stimulate the next generation sequencing market, we need to start by investing more small and medium size industry focusing on this field.

Cosmetic Surgery is Now a Thriving Sector

Cosmetic Surgery is not a New Term

Cosmetic surgery needs no introduction in today’s world where more of us are becoming more conscious to look beautiful. Indeed, you cannot say it is only the celebrities who want to look beautiful to stay in the glamour business. Common people like you and me also want to look equally attractive like a top heroine.

Defining This Type of Surgery

It is basically reconstructing a defective part of your body. For example, you have a flat thick nose. You are not happy with it and want a symmetrical nose. So, through cosmetic surgery you can enhance your nose to make it look right. Also, through this type of surgery, the surgeons will reshape your nose in such a way it perfectly balances with the face. Again, there are many people who have a nose that obstructs airway. A cosmetic surgeon can easily correct obstructed airway for proper breathing.

Worldwide Boom of Cosmetic Surgery

You cannot trace the time since people from all across the globe started looking for experienced surgeons to do different types of plastic surgery. There are a good number of hospitals and private health clinics that have experienced surgeons and state of the art facilities to give the best possible attention and care to patients trying to look attractive and younger. It is not only the celebrities who are spending large amount of money to enhance their looks or correct a birthmark. There are teenagers, executives and even housewives who are flocking at this health centers in large numbers to know more about cosmetic surgery, how much it cost and the result post-surgery. This type of surgical procedure is minimally invasive. The centers have some exceptionally talented cosmetic surgeons with years of experience. The surgeons do their best to make people look beautiful and enhance their look and confidence through minimally invasive procedures.

Low Fees and Surgery Costs

These days many health clinics perform cosmetic surgeries at a low-cost. In minimally invasive surgery or laparoscopy, the surgeon makes a small hole in the abdomen. It is also less painful and the patient heals quickly.

Types of Cosmetic Surgery

Nose reshaping: People with a flat nose, protruding nostrils, nose with narrow air passage go for this type of surgery. Also known as rhinoplasty, it helps to correct the nose shape as well as clear the airway to make breathing a hassle-free task.

Facial surgery: The doctors boost the aesthetic aspects of your face, mouth, teeth and jaws through skin, muscle, bones and cartilage grafting.

Arm lifting: Brachioplasty is a surgical procedure to correct your upper arms. Many people have excess fat on their upper arms and they are unhappy with it. They can go to a cosmetic surgeon to remove the excess fat and skin from their underarms.

Breast enlargement and reduction: If you have a small breast, you can enlarge it through minimally invasive surgical procedure. Again, if someone has large breasts they can cut the same through cosmetic surgery to boost their look and confidence.

Eyelid surgery: Surgeons removes fat and excess skin from the upper eyelids to improve eyesight.

Liposuction: In spite of dieting and regular exercise, the excess fat in your body does not burn. Liposuction helps to remove fat deposits.

Tummy Tucking: Doctors make small incisions in the abdomen to remove excess skin and fat. Muscles are then tightened to give a younger look.